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Quizlet of poetry vocab Chloe made: https://quizlet.com/79871048/spsela-english-9-poetry-and-drama-terms-flash-cards/
Thanks, Chloe!!

Figurative Language:

Poetic Devices:
(Sound devices)

Poetry Terms:
lyric poetry
stanza and types of stanzas (quatrain, cinquain, couplet, etc.)
foot and meter
blank verse
poetry - rhythmic language that uses figures of speech to express ideas that appeals to the senses and emotions

Figurative language is the essence of poetry. When a poet tries to share with readers an image in all of its depth, the poet looks for exactness, which figures of speech can provide. For example, to say that something is "smooth" gives the reader a general idea, but to say that it is "as smooth as ice" or "as smooth as velvet" provides a specific and concrete sensory picture -- ice is very cold; velvet is extremely soft.

A figure of speech is always based on a comparison, and it is not literally true. A way of wishing someone in a play "good luck" is to say "Break a leg!" This does not literally mean that the actor should injure him or herself and physically break one of his or her legs. It means "good luck!"

They compare NOUNS to NOUNS. "Charlie was as fast as lightning." Charlie, a person (noun), is being compared to lightning (a noun).

A simile compares two things that are not alike by using the words like, as, than, or resembles.
"Twinkle, twinkle little star The star is shining and twinkling like a diamond in the sky.
How I wonder what you are,
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky."

A metaphor also compare two unlike things, but it does so directly by saying one thing is something else. Metaphors do not use like, as, than or resembles.
In a simile the two things remain separate. In a metaphor, the two things are united.

Metaphor: The defensive lineman was a rock during the game. He was a rock - he was tough and unmovable. He is not literally a rock during the game.
Simile: The defensive lineman was tough like a rock during the game.

There are two kinds of metaphors - direct metaphors like the example above, and implied metaphors.
An implied metaphor implies or suggests the comparison without using is.

"The fog comes on little cat feet" -- the fog is being compared to a cat - it comes in quietly, soundlessly, like a cat comes into a room, perhaps the fog even sneaks in.

"The banquet of life" -- Life has many choices like the many food choices offered at a banquet.

Personification is a special kind of metaphor in which we give human qualities to something that is not human--to an animal, an object, or even an idea. Giving human qualities to inanimate objects is personification.

A hyperbole is extreme exaggeration. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or create a strong impression, but it is not meant to be taken literally. Hyperboles are exaggerations used to create emphasis or effect. Tall tales use hyperboles. The American tall tale about Paul Bunyan, for example, relies heavily on hyperboles to establish a picture of Paul Bunyan's giant stature and abilities. Hyperbole is also frequently used in comedy to offer a humorous description of somebody or something.

Example: The ancient neighbor down the street was there when Lincoln was shot. ---- The man may be very old, but he was not literally there in the 1860s when Lincoln was assassinated.

Example: "I'm starving! I'm so hungry I could eat a horse!" declared Joe. Joe is not literally starving, nor will he literally eat a horse. He just feels very hungry.

Example from The Sandlot: "You're killing me, Smalls" -- Smalls is not literally killing the person speaking. Smalls is frustrating the other boy.

You can read more about figurative language and these specific terms here: http://figurativelanguage.net/